A PTR record is the opposite of an A record. Instead of resolving a domain name to an IP address, it resolves an IP address to a domain name. The procedure of resolving a PTR record in SPF is as follows:
- The connecting IP address is taken and a reverse-mapping for it is made in “in-addr.arpa” format for IPv4 and in “ip6.arpa.” for IPv6 to find any domain names.
- For each domain name (has to be exact match or a subdomain of the target domain) returned a forward lookup is made to find it’s IP address.
- If the connecting IP address is among the returned IP addresses from the lookup then the domain name results in a match.
As it can be seen this mechanism is slow and not as reliable as other mechanisms. Therefore it should not be used as per RFC: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7208#section-5.5
Other mechanisms should be used instead, such as: "A", "MX", "iP4", "iP6", "include".
NOTE: Apart from being slow and unreliable some receivers may decide to skip a ptr mechanism or skip the whole SPF record which may lead to failures. Therefore, the ptr mechanism should not be used.